Tag Archives: Kernel

The file system is a logical collection of files on a disk. In Linux, all users including the root user which is also known as the superuser have their own home directories to save their data in.

Linux Directory Structure:

In Linux, you can choose any method to manage files and folders with a file manager or with the command line. The thing you should consider is that you must have good knowledge of the Linux commands to use command line method.

Linux and Unix use a tree-like file system structure with root (/) at the base of the file system. All the other directories spread from there. Each of these directories has a specific purpose. Generally, they hold the same types of information so that you can easily locate files. The following are the common directories found in Linux and Unix:

/

This is the root directory which contains the directories needed at the top level of the file structure.

/bin

This directory contains the executable files. These files are available to all users.

/dev

It holds device files that represent hardware components.

/lib

It contains shared library files and sometimes other kernel-related files.

/tmp

This directory holds temporary files used between system boots.

/boot

It contains files for booting the system.

/etc

This directory host-specific system configuration files.

/home

It contains the home directory for users and other accounts on the server.

/var

Basically, it contains variable-length files such as log and print files and any other type of file that may contain a variable data.

/mnt

This directory used to mount other temporary file systems, such as CD-ROM and floppy for the respective drive.

/proc

This directory contains all processes marked as a file by process number or other information that is dynamic in the system.

/usr

This directory used for miscellaneous purposes and can be used by many users. Additionally, it has administrative commands, shared files, library files, and others

/sbin

It contains binary files, basically for system administration. For example, fdisk and ifconfig utlities.

/kernel

This directory contains kernel files.

Please refer our other file system related articles at following theselinks:

https://linux-documentation.com/linux-file-access-permissions/(opens in a new tab)

https://linux-documentation.com/modifying-file-permissions-in-linux/(opens in a new tab)

I hope these articles will help you understand the Linux File System easily.

Linux is a free and open source operating system released in 1991 for computers. But today, it works on computers, servers, mainframes, mobile devices, and embedded devices. Linux is one of the most popular versions of the UNIX Operating System. It was designed considering UNIX compatibility and thus it’s quite similar to Unix.

Linux-based operating systems are mostly used by developers to get their work done and develop something new. They are choosing a Linux distro for development because it’s easy to use as well as compatible with most of the programming languages i.e Java, PHP, HTML etc. Today, Linux is ideal for commercial network devices and enterprises who want to use it to customize their own network and data center infrastructure.

The following is a list of best Linux distributions for Development and Server Management:
  • Debian
  • Ubuntu
  • Fedora
  • CentOS/REDHAT
  • Raspbian
  • And more

Please check out our other article to get more information about these Linux distributions here.

Primary Components of Linux

These are the three primary components of this operating system:

Kernel

The kernel is a core part of the operating system. It performs all major activities. It consists of various modules and interacts directly with the internal hardware. The Main function of the kernel is to send instructions to the CPU, peripherals, and memory.

System Library

System libraries are the programs that allow application programs or system utilities to access the Kernel’s features. These libraries are responsible for executing most of the OS programs. They don’t have the kernel module’s code access rights.

System Utility

System Utility programs are responsible to perform specialized, individual level tasks. Beyond tthe operating system it has two modes such as Kernel Mode and User Mode. The system runs programs under one of these modes.

Kernel Mode vs User Mode

Kernel Mode has full access to all resources of the system. In kernel mode programs represent a single process. It executes in single address space and does not require any context switch. Because of which this mode is very efficient and fast.

User programs and other system programs run in User Mode. It has no access to system hardware and kernel code. User programs use system libraries to access kernel functions to get the system’s low-level tasks done.