While windows and Mac have similar methods to install software, Linux has a different take on it. In Linux, you can’t look for software online on some website, instead, you search for it in your distribution’s software repository. 

Here we will walk you through the different terms you are going to encounter while trying to install software on your Linux OS. 

Software Repositories

Think of a software repository as your “app store”. All the software that you can possibly need for your Linux distribution is available here. You pick the required software and let the package manager do the rest.

Package Manager

Behind the scenes is the package manager. It takes care of all the installations on your Linux distribution. When you select software to install, the package manager will download and install it. Along with that, it will also search and install any other software package required for your selected one. Pretty handy!

Graphical Frontend

If you were to deal with the package manager on your own, it might have scared you away. To make this complex and intimidating sub-system easy and pretty-looking, all Linux distributions come with a frontend interface. 

For propriety software

Some software will not be available in your software repositories like Skype or Google Chrome. Since your distribution does not have the right to redistribute this software, you will have to download them from there relevant sites.

 Simply, go to the official website. Download the installation package available for your Linux distribution. Select the version you’d like to install. You will then receive a package depending on your Linux distribution. Double click on that file and your package manager will take over from here.

Third-party repositories

For software that is not available elsewhere, a third-party repository is also a good place to look in. everyone can create their own repository also called personal package archives or PPA. 

There are many other ways to install software on Linux such as compiling right from the source code or using packages designed for windows etc. The methods described in this article, however, are enough for a beginner. 

‘Text Editors’ also known as ‘Editors’ are computer programs that are designed to create and edit plain and rich text files. One or more text editors are installed in every Operating System, by default. 

Features of Text Editors:

Text editors have various features that help to change the files. Such as ‘Documentation files’ as well as the ‘Configuration files’. Some of the features that come handy in the text editing and creation include, typing, deleting, erasing, the cursor moving, cut & copy-pasting. They also give the option of finding, replacing and saving, etc.

Moreover, they also have features referred to as ‘Source Code Editors’. These enable the users to edit and write ‘Programing language codes’. Other than that you can highlight the syntax, identify and rectify the errors, type at multiple places at the same time. 

Text Editors For Linux:

Just like any other OS, Linux desktop also supports a number of text editors. With more than ten different text editors you can install the one that suits your application. It helps to edit plain text, rich text and handles programming codes too.

–      For Plain Text:

Text editors for editing plain text on Linux are divided into two categories;

  • The GUI such as gedit, gvim, Tea, etc
  • The console editors like nano, pico, emacs or vim, etc.

While the GUI editors have user-friendly interface the console text editors offer suitability over even long-distance networks. 

–      For Rich Text:

Just like the plain text, Linux supports two major types of text editors to create and edit rich text. You can either use the HTML editors including Amaya, Bluefish, Quanta, or XML editors such as Oxygen, Eclipse, KXML editors, etc. 

–      For Programming Codes:

When it comes to edit or create computer programing languages/codes, there are a number of text editors that work perfectly in a Linux environment. Text editors like Sublime Text Editor, Atom, Codelite or CodeBlocks are some of the efficient and most compatible text editors for code generation and editing. 

Linux and Windows are both the computer operating systems or simply the OS. Both Linux and windows are compatible with x86 hardware including intel processors or AMD. Though the function of both the operating systems is almost the same, they differ in respect to their ‘Graphical User Interface (GUI)’.

Here is a brief list of differences between Linux and windows:

Overview of Windows OS:

When it comes to Microsoft Windows, is simply an extended version of the MS-DOS. It is not an open-source OS rather it is a commercial operating system. It means that not everyone has access to source code.

Furthermore, with Windows OS, the user has very limited customization options and it is vulnerable to malware & other viruses if used without anti-virus software. But comparatively, windows are simple to use, easy to access and have a more accessible support system than any other OS.

Overview of Linux OS:

Linux – is an open-source operating system and based on UNIX. It means its source code is accessible to everyone, whether a member or not. The user has a great variety of customization options and can also alter the source code to remove bugs. Moreover, the GUI of Linux comes with certain software that is helpful for the developers to perform their day-to-day tasks.

Unlike Windows, Linux is compatible with all devices including computers, smartphones, gaming consoles, e-book readers, and even cameras & video recorders. The users having a license can easily modify the software in Linux and they can operate this OS on multiple devices at a time.

Though Linux is more complicated to install, it makes complicated tasks much easier to perform. The best thing about this OS is that it is secure from malware and other security threats, even without anti-virus software.

Both operating systems – Microsoft Windows and Linux have their own features and advantages. But when it comes to security, accessibility, and ease of use, Linux outweighs windows. Also, Linux is more reliable and much faster than Windows.

The term IDE means ‘Integrated Development Environment’. It is a computer software application that serves computer programmers and developers in developing new software. Unlike the other programming software and tools, IDEs are open-source rather than commercial offerings. 

Features of IDE:

What makes the IDEs different from other programming software is the features and tools it offers. The whole idea behind this software application was to maximize the productivity of the programmers and developers. And IDE has made it possible by organizing all the necessary features and tools in one user-interface!

The IDE offers a variety of features and tools, and it is not wrong to call it an all-in-one solution. From code searcher, syntax highlighting, to refactoring and code completion, IDEs have it all. In addition to these features, IDE also offers tools for debugging, visual control and visual programming. 

Different Type of IDEs:

As every application and software has its unique coding, therefore every IDE is designed for a specific program. For example, there is a different IDE for developing an IOS application, and the same can’t be used for developing a web-based program. 

In order to create a successful program, the developer should carefully select the IDE that matches the type of application/program he wants to create. Basically, there are four major different IDEs, that includes:

– Web-based IDE,

– Cloud-based to Mobile IDE,

– Language-specific IDE,

– Multi-language IDE.

Benefits of Using IDEs:

The ultimate benefit of an IDE software is that it improves and maximizes productivity. With an IDE, the programmers don’t need to spend days to figure out the right tools anymore. Rather they get everything in one software. 

The fast and easy set-up, standardized tools designed under a single user interface, saves the programmer from configuration and learning multiple tools. This software has made it possible to easily create an application using a standardized program.

Furthermore, other benefits of IDE includes accessibility to development from anywhere in the world, ease of collaborations, and zero to minimal downloading and installation requirements.

In our previous article, we have seen how to configure sudo user in Linux. Here we are going to see some of the situations, and their corresponding ‘sudo‘ line configurations. This will help you to allow the sudo user to run a specific system command. so, lets get started:

1. You have a user ‘andrew which is a Database Administrator. You want to provide him all access on the Database Server (beta.database_server.com) only, and not on any host.

For the above situation, we can write the ‘sudo‘ line as follows:

andrew beta.database_server.com=(ALL) ALL
2. You have a user ‘mark‘ which is supposed to execute system commands as a user other than root on the same Database Server which is explained above.

For this situation, we can write the ‘sudo‘ line as follows:

andrew beta.database_server.com=(mark) ALL
3. You have a sudo user ‘tom‘ which is supposed to run command ‘’cat‘ only.

To implement this situation, we can write ‘sudo’ as:

andrew beta.database_server.com=(tom) dog
4. What if the user needs to be granted several commands?

If the number of commands the user wants to run is under 10, we can place all the commands alongside. We can set these commands with white spaces in between them, as shown below:

andrew beta.database_server.com=(cat) /usr/bin/command1 /usr/sbin/command2 /usr/sbin/command3 ...

If this list of command varies to the range, where it is literally impossible to type each command manually then we need to use aliases. Aliases are a Linux utility where a lengthy command or a list of commands can be referred to as a small and easy keywords.

Following are the few alias examples, which can be used in place of entry in ‘sudo‘ configuration file.

User_Alias ADMINS=tom,jerry,adam
user_Alias WEBMASTER=henry,mark
WEBMASTERS WEBSERVERS=(www) APACHE
Cmnd_Alias PROC=/bin/kill,/bin/killall, /usr/bin/top

We can also specify System Groups, in place of users, which belongs to that group just suffixing ‘%’ as below:

%apacheadmin WEBSERVERS=(www) APACHE
5. How we can execute a ‘sudo‘ command without entering a password?

We can execute a ‘sudo‘ command without entering a password by using ‘NOPASSWD‘ flag as shown in the following sudo line.

kristy ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: PROCS

Here the user ‘kristy‘ can execute all the commands aliased under “PROCS”, without entering the password.

However, sudo configuration is easy. Some of the Linux distributions have “sudo” enabled by default while most of the Linux distros of today need you to enable it as a Security Measure.

To add the user (adam) to sudo execute the below command as root.

adduser adam sudo 

In this way, you can maintain your server security by assigning sudo access to other users to whom you want to grant specific system access.

Due to the simplicity and similarities in commands of both Linux and Mac OS, users tend to view them as similar operating systems. Although they have similar kernels, both have completely different histories. 

In 1985, Steve Jobs after leaving Apple worked on an operating system called NeXTSTEP OS. In order to make this OS, his team combined some codes from BSD codes and used them with Mach Kernel from Carnegie Mellon. Apple, later on, purchased the NeXTSTEP OS in 1997 as they failed to update their existing OS. Then Apple renamed the OS to Mac OS. Its kernel was called XNU or “X is Not Unix”.  Mac OS is strictly used for Apple devices.

Linux Kernel, on the other hand, was developed by a student Linus Torvalds in 1991 for his x86 intel processor. He created an open-source operating system and posted it on Usenet. Now after 27 years, Linux is the most commonly used operating system. The most famous release of Linux is Android followed by Arch Linux and Debian Linux.

Here we will highlight the major differences between Linux and Mac OS:

1. File Structure

Both of these operating systems have similar command lines. Their differences come into view when you look at the architecture. So, Linux has a data tree on to which it mounts all the drives and files. However, Mac OS stores files in the form of directories, like Windows, that can be accessed as /Developer, /tmp, etc. 

2. Storage

Linux uses the same format of storage for application settings as it does for file storage. The settings can be found in a hierarchy format without any centralized database in existence. However, Mac OS gives the application settings the extension .plist. This file is located in /Library/Preferences and has all the relevant application settings in text or binary format.

3. Switching Network Interfaces

In Linux, you can switch interfaces without the need to install any program. Simply use GNOME or similar applications. Whereas for Mac OS, interfaces can be managed by making changes in the system preferences. 

4. Console

Both Linux and Mac OS provide a console terminal on which the users can write and run commands. Moreover, the terminal also provides information to the users.

In a nutshell, Linux and Mac OS look alike at a glance. But when you dig in a little deeper, you start to understand the key differences that make them incompatible.

Linux is the most powerful OS. Because it comes with a variety of tools and customization options. That is why this OS is the most beloved among the developers and coders. And almost all the programmers have this OS installed on their computers and they prefer it over Windows.

If you are a beginner and looking for how to use Linux OS such as Ubuntu, Kubuntu, Fedora, etc, then here is the step-by-step guide on how you do it.

Most Compatible Linux Version For Windows:

Though there are different versions of Linux OS, the best one for the Windows desktop is the ‘Ubuntu’. Not only is this version easy to use, but also it is easy to install and goes perfect with Windows OS. Therefore, Ubuntu is the best option for beginners as well as advanced developers and coders.

Ways To Run Ubuntu On Windows:

When it comes to using a Linux version on Windows computer, there are four ways one of which is to completely replace the Windows OS with Linux. The others include:

  1. Run Linux as a Web App: 
    This method is mostly for the ones who are not sure about the Linux program and looking for just a test-drive. You can get the full access to Ubuntu Linux, through your web browser. Go to edubuntu.org, fill the simple form and you will be granted access to the OS.
  2. Use Linux via USB/CD:
    The second method to run Linux on your Windows computers is to get it via a USB stick or CD. Simply insert the USB flash drive or the CD in your computer. Then reboot it. Another option is to open the BIOS boot menu and alter its boot sequence. Just click on the boot menu. Then select ‘Try Ubuntu without any change to your computer’.
  3. Run Linux via a Virtual Machine:
    Another option that is simple, easy and popular to use an alternate OS is by using virtualization software like Parallel Desktops. For starters, download the Linux setup on your desktop. Then select the file from parallels. Next, double click on ubuntu, and it will open the Linux software within the Windows environment.

Text Editors and IDEs are two different computer software programs.

Some IDEs and Text Editors for Linux desktop include Geany, Emacs, Pico, Vim and Atom allow programmers to edit their codes and files.

Though the basic purpose of both this software is the same, these are in fact two different programs that offer different features.

IDEs – Brief Overview:

An IDE is a computer program that provides all the editing tools and features. These include code editors, compiler, integrated debugger. Moreover, it can also provide syntax highlighting.

Usually, every IDE is linked with a specific programing language or framework.

●     Benefits Of IDEs:

  • The IDEs enable the programmers to collaborate and allows them to work in a group.
  • The features like syntax highlighting and auto-completion increase efficiency, proficiency and increases productivity.
  • The single user-interface saves the programmers to learn different coding tools and how to use it.
  • As every IDE is tied to one specific language or framework, therefore it comes with preinstalled libraries, that helps with the programming language.
  • IDEs support external plugging and provide Console for coding errors. 

Text Editors – Brief Overview:

A Text Editor is a simple computer program that enables the programers to create as well as edit plain and rich text. Unlike the IDEs the Text Editors can work with any programing framework or language.

●     Benefits Of Text Editors:

  • Simple and easy user-interface, with a single toolbar and few editing options.
  • As there is no auto-completion feature in text editors, it provides the programmer to learn HTML and XML.
  • It is best to learn and master the skills of code compilation and execution.

Which One Is Better?

Both programming software have their own benefits.

On one hand, the IDEs are more useful for projects that involve massive programming and uses advanced HTML.

On the other hand, text editors are useful to learn and master programming skills. It is best for beginners and enables them to work with different programming languages and frameworks.

Moreover, with text editors, the programmers can learn to do everything including code writing, editing, compilation and debugging. They can execute the code execution manually.

Linux is a very reliable, more secure and easy to use the operating system. And because of its number of useful features, most developers and programmers choose this OS for their computers. If you are currently using macOS and want to switch to Linux, then here is an ultimate guide on how you can use Linux on macOS.

macOS Shares the Same GUI Heritage as Linux:

Linux and macOS are somehow related to operating systems, which is why it is quite easy to use Linux on a macOS. Just as Linux has a GUI – the UNIX, macOS also shares a similar user interface with the GNU.

Use or Install Linux on macOS

There are two methods with which you can use Linux on macOS – one is using a ‘Virtualisation Software’; and the other one is to completely replace the macOS with the Linux version such as Ubuntu, Fedora, Linux Mint or Kubuntu, etc.

Use Linux on macOS via Virtualisation Software:

The best and easy way to get Linux on your Macbook is through virtualization software. There are many virtualization software such as Parallel Desktop or VirtualBox etc. With the help of this software, you can run Linux within the macOS environment on even on old hardware.

Here are the steps on how you can install Linux on Mac using a Virtualisation Software:

  1. Download the Linux version such as Ubuntu on mac.
  2. Go to the ‘Parallels Desktop’ and from there select ‘File’ and then chose ‘New’.
  3. Now select ‘install windows/another OS’ via a DVD/image file then ‘Continue’.
  4. The parallel Desktop software will automatically locate the OS files on the computer.
  5. Choose the Linux version you want to use and then again hit the continue button.
  6. Now enter your full name, user name, and password and verify your details then click continue.
  7. The file would be saved in the ‘Users’ section. You can change the location of the virtualization or continue from there.

To use Linux within macOS, go to the Control Center of the Parallels and enjoy the best OS on your computer!

What is Shell in Linux?

The Command Line Interface (CLI) is more popularly known as Shell and sometimes also referred to as prompt or terminal. It provides you with a text interface where you can write your command and the Shell will execute the corresponding task. As there are different distributions and flavors of Linux there are also different flavors of Shell. Each flavor has its own specific commands for various tasks and has its own benefits.

The Shell is one of the core features of Linux. You can use it to perform from the simplest of tasks to much complicated tasks.

Types of Linux Shell

Bourne Shell

This shell is fast and simple. However, simplicity means that it has less features than other types of shells. It is suitable for newbies but not experts.

Bash Shell

The Bash Shell, short for Bourne Again Shell, is one of the most popular shells that you may find in many Linux distributions. It provides many features while thriving to be simple.

C Shell

It was created by Bill Joy. It provides many features like aliases and command history for interactive use. Moreover, it also includes features like built-in arithmetic and C-like expression syntax to make programming easier.

TENEX C Shell

It is a modified version of C shell. It has many improvements like better history control, terminal locking, and read only variables. The shell also includes spell check and auto-completion features. Even after these modifications, it is fully compatible with C shell.

Korn Shell

It was developed by David Korn. It includes many features of Bourne shell and C shell. In addition to this, it also has its own unique features that make it even better.

Z Shell

It basically a modified version of Bourne shell. It incorporates features like better option handling, loadable modules and compatibility modes.

Fish Shell

Fish shell, short for friendly-interactive shell, aims to be more user friendly and interactive than any other shell.