What is Debian?

Debian is an operating system and a Linux distribution developed by ‘The Debian Project’. The OS is free and open-source. It is one of the oldest Linux distributions and many of the modern distros such as Ubuntu are based on its code.

To download Debian, click on this link.

Why should you use it?

The first benefit of most Linux distributions, that make them better than other competitive OS, is that they are free, and Debian is no different. They don’t charge you any money for the software. This gives it an advantage over many popular OS like Windows.

One more thing that is common among Linux Distributions is that they are open-source. Open-source software provide you with a lot of benefits. Such benefits include:

  • More control over the OS.
  • Disabling unwanted features.
  • Ability to modify the system.
  • Better understandability of the system.
  • Possibility of altering the operating system and creating your own OS that you can distribute, unless restricted by its distributor. However, there is no such restriction in Debian’s case.

Some other features that make it worth using are given below.

Features

  • A broad community to help you out: A community is very helpful for open-source software since if you encounter a bug you can turn to the community for help. As you can change the code of the OS solving the bug can be easier. This way you can solve your problems before the developers release a potential update for solving it. Moreover, since there are many active members in the community means that there will be more people to assist you.
  • Versatility: It has different branches that you can choose from. These branches include Stable (the current stable version), Old-stable (the previous stable version), Unstable (a version that incorporates latest technologies and software however it may have bugs and is not stable) and Testing (a version that includes latest technology and software that have been tested).
  • Policy Manual:  Its detailed manual helps new users get started.

What is CentOS?

CentOS is a Linux Distribution. It was developed by The CentOS Project which is affiliated with Red Hat. It is based on Red Hat Linux which is a discontinued Linux distro.

Click here to download CentOS.

Why should you download CentOS?

You should download the OS because it is free. It means that by choosing CentOS you immediately save money that you might have spent on another operating system such as Windows. It is also open-source. Open-source software allow more customization and give you more control over the system. It means that you can shut off unwanted features and services and add stuff to the system. However, most Linux based OS have these features then what makes CentOS so special? Here are some features that make it special.

Features

  • Stable: There are two branches of Linux Distros one prioritizes new technology while the others concentrate more on stability. This OS puts more effort into stability. The developers make sure that every new update is stable before it is released and therefore it might not always have the latest software.
  • Secure: The operating software is one of the most secure Linux distribution available and who doesn’t prefer security.
  • Less Updates: There are some Linux distros that provide frequent updates to provide the latest software however CentOS isn’t one of them. As discussed above the operating system thrives for stability. Therefore, the developers must check each and every aspect of new technology and they have to make modify the system to make it compatible with the technology making sure that there would not be any bugs and crashes. This requires time and that is why there are less frequent updates.
  • Usage: This OS is better suited for businesses and servers. Both of these require a system that is stable, and which doesn’t change frequently. Moreover, they also require a system that would be secure as there is a lot of confidential information stored on them. The OS has all of these features.

What is Ubuntu?

Ubuntu is a Linux distribution that is based on Debian. It is a free and open-source operating system developed by Canonical Ltd.. There are many different flavors of the OS such as Lubuntu, Xubuntu, Kubuntu and but we will be talking about the software in general.

To download Ubuntu, click here.

Why do you need it?

There are so many operating systems out there like Windows and macOS. Why should you select Ubuntu then? Here are all the main reasons that make it worth choosing.

Free

One of the most prominent features of this OS and most other Linux distributions that distinguish them from other operating systems is that they are available for free. Most of its competitors are not free and you have to purchase them.

Open-source

As mentioned above this OS is open-source. Open-source software give you more control over them. You can customize them to great extents according to your needs. Moreover, mostly bugs are fixed quicker on such software.

User friendly

Perhaps the normal perception of many users is that Linux based OS are hard to work on and non-user-friendly. This is one of the main reasons why people don’t want to migrate from other OS, such as Windows, to Ubuntu. However, this is not the case. Although it may not be as user friendly as Windows it is no rocket science either. Once you give it a try after some time you would find it quite easy to use.

More Secure

It is more secure than other OS such as Windows. One reason for that is that there are less viruses and malware out there for the OS than Windows. This is because Windows has more market share than it does. Another reason is that you can easily configure and make adjustments to it such as stopping services.

Frequent and regular updates

The OS is updated every six months and long-term supports are released every 2 years. These updates ensure greater security and hardware support.

Now that you have a bootable copy of each OS on DVDs or USBs (as explained in part 1) here are the rest of the steps to use Windows and Linux on a single computer.

Installing the two OS

Now the next step is installing Windows and Linux on your computer. For Windows, you are going to need a product key unless your computer came with Windows already installed. In such a case the key would be embedded into your computer. But if you bought the retail version of Windows during the installation process you are going to need that key for proceeding forward. For Linux, since in most cases it is free, you don’t require such. Just follow the instructions of the installer to advance. You would find installing Windows a lot easier and less time taking. While for the Linux distribution it is highly likely that you would need to invest your time, energy and mind.

It is better to install Windows first

If you want to make this process less hectic install Windows first on your PC. Why? Because during the installation process many Linux distributions, such as Ubuntu, give you the option to install it while keeping Windows. If you select this option, the installer will handle this. It will analyze the Windows and partition your hard disk without causing any trouble. However, Windows provides you with no such option. Hence you would have to partition your hard disk if you want both the OS on a single hard disk and you might mess up.

Allocating Space

You’ll have to allocate space to each OS. This allocation would depend on your needs. You would definitely want Linux to have more memory than Windows if you wish to use it more often and vice versa.

Switching between the OS

To switch all you have to do is restart your system. You will be asked to select the OS you want to access when the computer is booting and that is it.

Why do you need Windows and Linux on a single computer?

There can be many reasons why a person might want the two operating systems on the same computer. For example, you want to migrate from Windows to Linux, but you are not sure whether you would like this change. So, if you straight ahead delete Windows but later realize that Linux isn’t for you (which is highly unlikely) then what? Some users keep Windows with Linux because there are certain software and games that you can not run on Linux, therefore, you need Windows to see them. But is it possible to keep two OS on a single computer? Yes, and here is how you can use both Windows and Linux on a single computer.

The First Step

The first thing that you need is obviously a copy of both the OS. If you don’t already have Windows pre-installed on your PC grab a copy of it. You’ll have to purchase it unless you already have a copy. If you don’t have the Windows on CD make a bootable form of it on USB or DVD-R. You are also going to need a bootable copy of the Linux distribution you wish to install. There are two ways you can acquire a Linux OS. They are mostly free and available on their official website. However, you can buy a disk containing a copy of the OS. This helps the developers of the OS get some money and you don’t have to make a bootable copy of it either.

How to make bootable copies

As mentioned above if you don’t have the OS on disk or USB, you’ll have to make them. For Windows download Windows Media Creation Tool and follow its steps for making a bootable copy. Whereas for Linux download and ISO image of the distribution from their site and use third-party software to make your USB a bootable Linux copy. As for DVD-R, you can use your default DVD burning software.

While windows and Mac have similar methods to install software, Linux has a different take on it. In Linux, you can’t look for software online on some website, instead, you search for it in your distribution’s software repository. 

Here we will walk you through the different terms you are going to encounter while trying to install software on your Linux OS. 

Software Repositories

Think of a software repository as your “app store”. All the software that you can possibly need for your Linux distribution is available here. You pick the required software and let the package manager do the rest.

Package Manager

Behind the scenes is the package manager. It takes care of all the installations on your Linux distribution. When you select software to install, the package manager will download and install it. Along with that, it will also search and install any other software package required for your selected one. Pretty handy!

Graphical Frontend

If you were to deal with the package manager on your own, it might have scared you away. To make this complex and intimidating sub-system easy and pretty-looking, all Linux distributions come with a frontend interface. 

For propriety software

Some software will not be available in your software repositories like Skype or Google Chrome. Since your distribution does not have the right to redistribute this software, you will have to download them from there relevant sites.

 Simply, go to the official website. Download the installation package available for your Linux distribution. Select the version you’d like to install. You will then receive a package depending on your Linux distribution. Double click on that file and your package manager will take over from here.

Third-party repositories

For software that is not available elsewhere, a third-party repository is also a good place to look in. everyone can create their own repository also called personal package archives or PPA. 

There are many other ways to install software on Linux such as compiling right from the source code or using packages designed for windows etc. The methods described in this article, however, are enough for a beginner. 

‘Text Editors’ also known as ‘Editors’ are computer programs that are designed to create and edit plain and rich text files. One or more text editors are installed in every Operating System, by default. 

Features of Text Editors:

Text editors have various features that help to change the files. Such as ‘Documentation files’ as well as the ‘Configuration files’. Some of the features that come handy in the text editing and creation include, typing, deleting, erasing, the cursor moving, cut & copy-pasting. They also give the option of finding, replacing and saving, etc.

Moreover, they also have features referred to as ‘Source Code Editors’. These enable the users to edit and write ‘Programing language codes’. Other than that you can highlight the syntax, identify and rectify the errors, type at multiple places at the same time. 

Text Editors For Linux:

Just like any other OS, Linux desktop also supports a number of text editors. With more than ten different text editors you can install the one that suits your application. It helps to edit plain text, rich text and handles programming codes too.

–      For Plain Text:

Text editors for editing plain text on Linux are divided into two categories;

  • The GUI such as gedit, gvim, Tea, etc
  • The console editors like nano, pico, emacs or vim, etc.

While the GUI editors have user-friendly interface the console text editors offer suitability over even long-distance networks. 

–      For Rich Text:

Just like the plain text, Linux supports two major types of text editors to create and edit rich text. You can either use the HTML editors including Amaya, Bluefish, Quanta, or XML editors such as Oxygen, Eclipse, KXML editors, etc. 

–      For Programming Codes:

When it comes to edit or create computer programing languages/codes, there are a number of text editors that work perfectly in a Linux environment. Text editors like Sublime Text Editor, Atom, Codelite or CodeBlocks are some of the efficient and most compatible text editors for code generation and editing. 

Linux and Windows are both the computer operating systems or simply the OS. Both Linux and windows are compatible with x86 hardware including intel processors or AMD. Though the function of both the operating systems is almost the same, they differ in respect to their ‘Graphical User Interface (GUI)’.

Here is a brief list of differences between Linux and windows:

Overview of Windows OS:

When it comes to Microsoft Windows, is simply an extended version of the MS-DOS. It is not an open-source OS rather it is a commercial operating system. It means that not everyone has access to source code.

Furthermore, with Windows OS, the user has very limited customization options and it is vulnerable to malware & other viruses if used without anti-virus software. But comparatively, windows are simple to use, easy to access and have a more accessible support system than any other OS.

Overview of Linux OS:

Linux – is an open-source operating system and based on UNIX. It means its source code is accessible to everyone, whether a member or not. The user has a great variety of customization options and can also alter the source code to remove bugs. Moreover, the GUI of Linux comes with certain software that is helpful for the developers to perform their day-to-day tasks.

Unlike Windows, Linux is compatible with all devices including computers, smartphones, gaming consoles, e-book readers, and even cameras & video recorders. The users having a license can easily modify the software in Linux and they can operate this OS on multiple devices at a time.

Though Linux is more complicated to install, it makes complicated tasks much easier to perform. The best thing about this OS is that it is secure from malware and other security threats, even without anti-virus software.

Both operating systems – Microsoft Windows and Linux have their own features and advantages. But when it comes to security, accessibility, and ease of use, Linux outweighs windows. Also, Linux is more reliable and much faster than Windows.

The term IDE means ‘Integrated Development Environment’. It is a computer software application that serves computer programmers and developers in developing new software. Unlike the other programming software and tools, IDEs are open-source rather than commercial offerings. 

Features of IDE:

What makes the IDEs different from other programming software is the features and tools it offers. The whole idea behind this software application was to maximize the productivity of the programmers and developers. And IDE has made it possible by organizing all the necessary features and tools in one user-interface!

The IDE offers a variety of features and tools, and it is not wrong to call it an all-in-one solution. From code searcher, syntax highlighting, to refactoring and code completion, IDEs have it all. In addition to these features, IDE also offers tools for debugging, visual control and visual programming. 

Different Type of IDEs:

As every application and software has its unique coding, therefore every IDE is designed for a specific program. For example, there is a different IDE for developing an IOS application, and the same can’t be used for developing a web-based program. 

In order to create a successful program, the developer should carefully select the IDE that matches the type of application/program he wants to create. Basically, there are four major different IDEs, that includes:

– Web-based IDE,

– Cloud-based to Mobile IDE,

– Language-specific IDE,

– Multi-language IDE.

Benefits of Using IDEs:

The ultimate benefit of an IDE software is that it improves and maximizes productivity. With an IDE, the programmers don’t need to spend days to figure out the right tools anymore. Rather they get everything in one software. 

The fast and easy set-up, standardized tools designed under a single user interface, saves the programmer from configuration and learning multiple tools. This software has made it possible to easily create an application using a standardized program.

Furthermore, other benefits of IDE includes accessibility to development from anywhere in the world, ease of collaborations, and zero to minimal downloading and installation requirements.

In our previous article, we have seen how to configure sudo user in Linux. Here we are going to see some of the situations, and their corresponding ‘sudo‘ line configurations. This will help you to allow the sudo user to run a specific system command. so, lets get started:

1. You have a user ‘andrew which is a Database Administrator. You want to provide him all access on the Database Server (beta.database_server.com) only, and not on any host.

For the above situation, we can write the ‘sudo‘ line as follows:

andrew beta.database_server.com=(ALL) ALL
2. You have a user ‘mark‘ which is supposed to execute system commands as a user other than root on the same Database Server which is explained above.

For this situation, we can write the ‘sudo‘ line as follows:

andrew beta.database_server.com=(mark) ALL
3. You have a sudo user ‘tom‘ which is supposed to run command ‘’cat‘ only.

To implement this situation, we can write ‘sudo’ as:

andrew beta.database_server.com=(tom) dog
4. What if the user needs to be granted several commands?

If the number of commands the user wants to run is under 10, we can place all the commands alongside. We can set these commands with white spaces in between them, as shown below:

andrew beta.database_server.com=(cat) /usr/bin/command1 /usr/sbin/command2 /usr/sbin/command3 ...

If this list of command varies to the range, where it is literally impossible to type each command manually then we need to use aliases. Aliases are a Linux utility where a lengthy command or a list of commands can be referred to as a small and easy keywords.

Following are the few alias examples, which can be used in place of entry in ‘sudo‘ configuration file.

User_Alias ADMINS=tom,jerry,adam
user_Alias WEBMASTER=henry,mark
WEBMASTERS WEBSERVERS=(www) APACHE
Cmnd_Alias PROC=/bin/kill,/bin/killall, /usr/bin/top

We can also specify System Groups, in place of users, which belongs to that group just suffixing ‘%’ as below:

%apacheadmin WEBSERVERS=(www) APACHE
5. How we can execute a ‘sudo‘ command without entering a password?

We can execute a ‘sudo‘ command without entering a password by using ‘NOPASSWD‘ flag as shown in the following sudo line.

kristy ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: PROCS

Here the user ‘kristy‘ can execute all the commands aliased under “PROCS”, without entering the password.

However, sudo configuration is easy. Some of the Linux distributions have “sudo” enabled by default while most of the Linux distros of today need you to enable it as a Security Measure.

To add the user (adam) to sudo execute the below command as root.

adduser adam sudo 

In this way, you can maintain your server security by assigning sudo access to other users to whom you want to grant specific system access.